Ocean mixing and circulation response in the marginal ice zone

by David G. Markham

Written in English
Published: Pages: 93 Downloads: 349
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  • Oceanic mixing -- Mathematical models.,
  • Sea ice.

Edition Notes

Statementby David G. Markham.
The Physical Object
Pagination93 leaves :
Number of Pages93
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14277693M

  The large amount of sensible heat, which is delivered from the deep to the ocean surface as a result of winter convective mixing, likely contributes significantly to heat balance at the ocean–air or ocean–ice interface (Ivanov et al. ; Onarheim et al. ). This could help maintain low ice concentration and/or thinner ice along the AW Cited by:   As it turns out, sea ice in the Greenland and Iceland seas is an important player in the workings of a powerful ocean current known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Ice- Leopard and Ross seals tend to be solitary, whereas Weddell and crabeater seals form breeding groups or colonies. Land- Antarctic fur seals and elephant seals—are both found north of the pack-ice zone and breed in dense colonies on beaches. Diapycnal mixing in the ocean: Newly available data and parameterizations from the Climate Process Team Ice-ocean interactions and circulation around the Antarctic margins Andrew F Thompson, Pierre Dutrieux, Karen M Assmann and Andrew Stewart Marginal Ice Zone Processes James M Thomson, Jeremy Wilkinson, Martin O. Jeffries and Craig Lee.

An ice floe is a floating chunk of sea ice that is less than 10 kilometers in its greatest dimension. Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) is an interfacial region of ice floes which forms at the boundary of open water and the continuous ice pack. Figure 1 depicts a typical MIZ situation including ice floes and wave induced ice fracture at the ice edge. freshwater input from sea-ice melting stabilizes the upper water column by forming a shallow summer mixed layer. Retreating sea ice in the spring and summer thus defines the area of influence, the sea-ice zone (SIZ) and the marginal ice zone (MIZ). A year time series (–) was analyzed to address.   Melting Greenland ice sheet may affect global ocean circulation, future climate by University of South Florida Isua Supracrustal Belt Isua, south-west Greenland. The tides likely provide a strong control on the stratification and circulation of the ocean, with deep ocean tidal energy dissipation and internal wave production providing approximately 1/3 of the energy for deep ocean mixing. Altimetric observations and global models show the propagation of beams of internal tides over s of kms.

By convention, the ocean’s large-scale circulation is assumed to be a thermohaline overturning driven by the addition and extraction of buoyancy at the surface and vertical mixing in the interior. Previous work suggests that the overturning should die out as vertical mixing rates are reduced to zero. In this paper, a formal energy.   The Arctic Ocean is generally considered a remarkably quiet ocean, with very little mixing, because a cover of sea ice prevents wind from driving the . Processes occurring at or close to the ice-ocean interface around Antarctica influence the state and circulation of a large proportion of the global ocean. The annual cycle of sea ice formation, export and melt is critical to the formation of both Antarctic Bottom Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water, which together fill more than half of the.   Shallow methylmercury production in the marginal sea ice zone of the central Arctic Ocean Lars-Eric Heimbürger, a, 1 Jeroen E. Sonke, 1 Daniel Cossa, 2 David Point, 1 Christelle Lagane, 1 Laure Laffont, 1 Benjamin T. Galfond, 3 Marcel Nicolaus, 4 Benjamin Rabe, 4 and Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff 4Cited by:

Ocean mixing and circulation response in the marginal ice zone by David G. Markham Download PDF EPUB FB2

This article investigates the penetration of ocean waves into the marginal ice zone (MIZ), observed by satellite, and likewise provides a basis for the future cross-validation of respective models. To this end, synthetic aperture radar images from the TerraSAR-X satellite (TS-X) and numerical simulations of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Cited by: 9.

The theoretical foundation of a wave–ice interaction model is reported in Part 1 of this study. The model incorporates attenuation of ocean surface waves by sea ice floes and the concomitant breaking of the floes by waves that determines the structure of the marginal ice zone (MIZ).Cited by: Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) Program.

The Arctic and Global Prediction program is ONR's response to the Navy's need for more research into understanding the environment and expanding our predictive capabilities.

Explore feedbacks in the ice-ocean-atmosphere system that might increase/decrease the speed of sea ice decline. The outer region is known as the marginal ice zone, where sea ice transitions to open water, and is an area of high spring-summer phytoplankton blooms that accounts for an estimated 15% of yearly net primary production in the Southern Ocean.

Thermal heterogeneities in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) upper ocean led to large ocean-to-ice heat fluxes ( W m-2) and enhanced basal ice melt. Studies of climate frequently involve identifying a plausible forcing mechanism (e.g., solar fluctuations), hypothesizing the response, and attempting to verify the hypothesis with data.

This is difficult because the mechanisms are many and frequently small in amplitude, the response complex, and. One of the most striking features of the MeHg profiles in the marginal sea ice zone (station 81°N and 85°N) is that the MeHg maxima are very shallow ( – m) compared to other open ocean Cited by: TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 measure ocean surface topography and circulation response to winds.

These measurements allow scientists to study the ties between the oceans and atmosphere, to improve global climate forecasts and predictions, and to monitor events such as El Niño conditions and ocean eddies.

Mixing in the ocean occurs on several scales, the smallest scale being molecular. If a layer of warm, salty water lies above a layer of colder, fresher water, the heat and salt will tend to diffuse (spread out) downwards to make a single layer with intermediate temperature and salinity values.

However, because heat diffuses faster than salt, the process can lead to local instabilities in. An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences.

Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Ocean currents are primarily. A wave-ice interaction model for the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is reported, which involves both the attenuation of ocean surface waves by sea ice and the concomitant breaking of the ice by waves.

Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zone Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene • 4: • doi: /ta 3 Methods Cruises and deployments Data were collected from two research cruises, on the R/V Ukpik (July 25th to August 2nd, ) in and out of Prudhoe Bay, AK, and on the Norseman II (September 26th–October 3rd) from Wainwright to.

Sea ice features a dense inner pack ice zone surrounded by a marginal ice zone (MIZ) in which the sea ice properties are modified by interaction with the ice-free open ocean, and the width of the MIZ is a fundamental length scale for polar physical. The Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) that separates open ocean from the interior pack ice is experiencing rapid changes as a result of high latitude climate change.

During summer, for example, its extent relative to total sea ice area is expanding [1], suggesting an increasing presence of thinner, loosely packed ice floes.

Changes. This study concerns the unique physical mechanism of Ekman convergence at the marginal ice zone (ECMIZ) produced by the difference between air-ice drag and air-water drag.

A coupled ice-ocean model is used to show the strength and distribution of the ECMIZ with respect to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) formation, which is important for the uptake of carbon Cited by: 6. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones. of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling.

Alexander V. Babanin. Swinburne University of Technology. PO Box Hawthorn, Victoria Australia. phone: + fax: + email: [email protected] Ian R. Young. The Australian National University. Canberra. marginal ice zone a part of the seasonal ice zone that varies in width ( to kilometers, 62 to miles) that extends from the ice edge into the ice pack, where waves and swells affect the ice; often characterized by highly variable ice conditions; in general, it is.

Journal of Geophysical Research () Partnered Journals. Chinese Journal of Geophysics () Earth Interactions Arctic Ocean circulation: ocean dynamics in a changing climate. In the surf zone, IG wave energy is transferred not only toward superharmonic but also toward subharmonic frequencies.

effect of vertical mixing on the ocean’s density structure and on the AL circulation. For this purpose, it is more effective to use a single ice-ocean model to conduct a series of numerical experiments with varying degrees of vertical mixing than to involve various AOMIP models with different model configurations and parameterizations.

The Cited by: The marginal ice zone (MIZ) is not a very well defined term and it is useful for an author to be specific about its meaning when using it.

Probably the most accepted definition is that of Wadhams () who describes it as "that part of the ice cover which is close enough to the open ocean boundary to be affected by its presence". Model simulations of global change that include ocean-atmosphere-land-ice interactions predict a particularly large increase of surface air temperature and marked reduction of sea ice cover over the Arctic Ocean in response to perturbations such as increased CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere (Manabe and Stouffer, ).

These models also. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling Alexander V.

Babanin Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box (H38), Hawthorn, Victoria Australia phone: + fax: + email: [email protected] Ian R. Young The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT Abstract The importance of waves in the Arctic Ocean has increased with the significant retreat of the seasonal sea-ice extent.

Here, we use wind, wave, turbulence, and ice measurements to evaluate the response of the ocean surface to a given wind stress within the marginal ice zone, with a focus on the local wind input to waves and subsequent ocean surface by: Get this from a library.

Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century Perspective. [Gerold Siedler; Stephen M Griffies; W John Gould; John Church;] -- This book provides a summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. It is structured to guide the reader through the analysis, interpretation.

82 trations is extended in Section 7 to include all the families of definitions. Summary and discussion 83 are provided in Section 8. 84 2. Eccentric annulus model and Laplace’s equation 85 The geometry of the marginal ice zone (e.g., Fig. 1a,b) can be approximated by an eccentric an- 86 nulus model (e.g., Figs.

1d,e respectively). In the eccentric annulus model, the MIZ is the. A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, as in an ocean or lake; or air, e.g.

an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. In the ocean, the thermocline divides the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below. Kohout, Dumont and Bertino () Modelling Ocean Waves in a Marginal ice Zone. Poster #, IPY Oslo Kohout and Meylan () A model for wave scattering in the Marginal Ice Zone based on a two-dimensional floating elastic plate.

Here we present the first central Arctic Ocean (79–90°N) profiles for total mercury (tHg) and MeHg. We find elevated tHg and MeHg concentrations in the marginal sea ice zone (81–85°N). Similar to other open ocean basins, Arctic MeHg concentration maxima also occur in the pycnocline waters, but at much shallower depths (– m).Cited by: An ice-ocean model has been used to investigate the effect of vertical mixing on the circulation of the Atlantic Water layer (AL) in the Arctic Ocean.

The motivation of this study comes from the disparate AL circulations in the various models that comprise the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP). Ocean, continuous body of salt water held in enormous basins on Earth’s surface.

There is one ‘world ocean,’ but researchers often consider it five: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern oceans. Covering nearly 71 percent of Earth’s surface, the oceans have an average depth of 3, metres (12, feet).

Sea ice sea ice: any form of ice found at sea, which formed from the freezing of sea water. forms when frigid air from above lowers sea surface temperatures enough for salty ocean water to freeze ( degrees Celsius/ degrees Fahrenheit).

At first, a thin layer if ice forms on the water's surface.Professor - Ocean Engineering Co-Director, Australia-China Centre for Maritime Engineering Adjunct Professor, Swinburne University of TechnologyProfessor Alexander Babanin obtained a Bachelor of Science (Physics) from the Lomonosov Moscow State University in Russia in ; a Master of Science in Physical Oceanography in and a Doctor of Philosophy in Physics.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. (, May 1). Ice Age Ocean Circulation Reacted To, Did Not Cause, Climate Change At Glacial Boundaries. ScienceDaily. Retrieved Decem from www.